NEW ASPECTS OF QUANTITY SURVEYING PRACTICE PDF

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New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice i Dedication to Peg ii New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice A text for all construction professionals Second. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Apr 21, , R. Emmanuel and others published New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice. Download New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice By Duncan Cartlidge – In the s, many pundits said that Quantity Surveyors were going the way of the.


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download New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice 3 by Duncan Cartlidge (ISBN: ) from site's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free. New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice. Duncan Cartlidge, Spon Press, London, pp, ISBN 0 4, £ (pb). This book was written. New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice Third Edition by Duncan Cartlidge is available for free download in PDF format.

DOI https: Pages pages. Subjects Built Environment. Export Citation. Get Citation. Cartlidge, D.

Routledge, https: View abstract. Part 1: How do I download this eBook? See help and FAQs pages. Estimator's Pocket Book 2e. Construction Project Manager's Pocket Quantity Surveyor's Pocket Book. Public Private Partnerships in Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube. Newsletter Sign up to the hive. Our Company What's Hive all About? Therefore the selection of appropriate measurement parameters and procedures is very important to the integrity of the system.

It is now important to distinguish between benchmarks and benchmarking. Since the late s there has been a widespread government-backed campaign to introTable 1. The objectives of the benchmarking as defined by the Office of Government Commerce are illustrated in Figure 1. Benchmarks provide an indication of position relative to what is considered optimum practice and hence indicate a goal to be obtained, but while useful for giving a general idea of areas requiring performance improvement, they provide no indication of the mechanisms by which increased performance may be brought about.

Basically it tells us that we are underperforming but it does not give us the basis for the underperformance. The production of KPIs which has been the focus of construction industry initiatives to date has therefore been concentrated on output benchmarks.

The danger with the current enthusiasm in the construction industry for KPIs is that outputs will be measured and presented but processes will not be improved as the underlining causes will not be understood.

Benchmarking projects have tended to remain as strategic goals at the level of senior management. Value for money Economy Efficiency Effectiveness Cheaper provision of services Services improves business efficiency Services support the business Encourage economy New ways of working Higher productivity Improve service delivery Lower prices Optimize investment in business Business strategy aligned to current business needs Improved service quality Figure 1.

These are measured at five key stages throughout the lifetime of a project. The measurement tools range from crude scoring on a 1 to 10 basis to the number of reportable accidents per , employees.

For benchmarking purposes the construction industry is broken down into sectors such as public housing and repair and maintenance.

The British system compared The following studies offer opportunities to directly compare the British system of procurement and project management with that of a European neighbour: A leading UK architectural practice was commissioned for the design on both sides of the Channel, who in turn procured medium-sized British and French firms for the construction.

The resultant projects offered a unique opportunity to compare project performance in the two countries with a functionally equivalent building, a common design and a single client. The final analysis demonstrated how the French performed much better than the British in terms of out-turn costs and completion times, despite the fact that both project teams faced similar challenges, largely generated by problems with scanning technology, yet the French team coped with them more smoothly.

Why was this? The answer would seem to lie in the differences in the organisation of the two projects: The French contractor re-engineered the project, simplifying the design and taking out unnecessary costs.

This was possible owing to the single point project liability that operates in France. Under the French contract, the British architect could not object to these contractor-led changes. Under the JCT contract, professional indemnity considerations meant that the architect refused to allow the British contractor to copy the French changes.

The simplified French design was easier, cheaper and quicker to build. This meant that there was room for manoeuvre as the client-induced variations mounted, whereas the British-run project could only cope by increasing the programme and budget. Once the project began to run late, work on construction became even less effective as the team had to start working out of sequence around the installation of scanning equipment.

Given the massive hospital building programme in the UK, which is planned to continue until at least , the study compared French hospitals with newly built UK hospitals not only from the point of view of design quality but also value for money. The results of the study are given in Table 1.

Heath warning: Even so: Area per bed however is much higher in France, with single bed wards used universally. The report therefore argues that French bed space outperforms its UK counterparts. Building service costs in France i. More ambitious automation and ICT are also used in France.

The story so far 13 Table 1. Chamond Armberieu Chateauroux Source: Building Design Partnership However, data released by Gardiner and Theobald seem to indicate that recent trends, due in part to the differentials between the British pound and the euro, have seen the gap close. The design quality of French hospitals is generally high, while in the UK standards achieved recently have been disappointing and have attracted some criticism.

Compared with many European countries, UK construction produces high output costs for customers from low input costs of professional advice, trade labour and materials.

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This fact is at the root of the Egan critique, pointing out that the UK has a wasteful system which would cost even more if UK labour rates were equal to those found in Europe. The waste in the system, ten years-plus from Latham, is still estimated to be around 30 per cent. Looking at French design and construction it is possible to see several of the Egan goals in place, but in ways specific to France.

While the design process begins with no contractor involvement, contractors become involved sooner than in the UK and take responsibility for much of the detailed design and specification. They are more likely to download standard components and systems from regular suppliers with well-developed supply chains, rather than on a project-by-project basis. Constructional simplicity follows from the French approach with French architects having 14 The story so far little control of details and not appearing to worry too much about door and window details, for example.

In the case of French hospitals, despite the lower cost, the projects contain very sophisticated technology with ICT systems becoming very ambitious. Therefore a simple cost comparison demonstrates that French hospital out-turn costs are cheaper than in the UK, but what of added value? Single point project liability insurance protects all the parties involved in both the design and construction process against failures in both design and construction of the works for the duration of the policy.

The current system, where some team members are insured and some are not, results in a tendency to design defensively, caveat all statements and advice with exclusions of liability, and not to seek help from other members of the team — not a recipe for team work. In the case of a construction management contract, the current approach to latent defect liability can result in the issue of between twenty and thirty collateral warranties, which facilitates the creation of a contractual relationship where one would otherwise not exist in order that the wronged party is then able to sue under contract rather than rely on the tort of negligence.

Therefore, in order to give contractors the power truly to innovate and to use techniques like value engineering see Chapter 6 , there has to be a fundamental change in the approach to liability. Contract forms could be amended to allow the contractor to modify the technical design prior to construction, with the consulting architects and engineers waiving their rights to interfere.

If this approach is an option, why does the UK construction industry still fail to produce the goods? The country is currently holding its breath to see whether the stadia and infrastructure to the Olympic Games will be completed on time and to budget.

The principal problems behind the failure of many high-profile projects were no business case, little or no understanding of the needs of the client, and the inability of a contractor to re-engineer the proposals and produce alternatives.

The result: Opponents of the proposal to introduce single-point liability cite additional costs as a negative factor.

As in the French system, technical auditors can be appointed to minimise risk and, some may argue, add value through an independent overview of the project. Changing patterns of workload The patterns of workload that quantity surveyors had become familiar with were also due to change.

The change came chiefly from two sources: Fee competition and compulsory competitive tendering CCT. The emergence of a new type of construction client. Fee competition and compulsory competitive tendering Until the early s, fee competition between professional practices was almost unheard of. All the professional bodies published scales of fees, and competition was vigorously discouraged on the basis that a client engaging an architect, engineer or surveyor should base his or her judgement on the type of service and not on the level of fees.

Consequently, all professionals within a specific discipline quoted the same fee. However, things were to change with the election of the Conservative government in The new government introduced fee competition into the public sector by way of its compulsory competitive tendering programme CCT , and for the first time professional practices had to compete for work in the same manner as contractors or subcontractors — i. The usual procedure was to submit a bid based upon scale of fees minus a percentage.

Initially these percentage reductions were a token 5 or 10 per cent, but as work became difficult to find in the early s, practices offered 30 or even 40 per cent reduction on fee scales. It has been suggested that during the s fee income from some of the more traditional quantity surveying services was cut by 60 per cent. Once introduced there was no going back, and soon the private sector began to demand the same reduction in fee scales; within a few years the cosy status quo that had existed and enabled private practices to prosper had gone.

No member shall with the object of securing instructions or supplanting another member of the surveying profession, knowingly attempt to compete on the basis of fees and commissions to No member shall.

With the introduction of fee competition the average fee for quantity surveying services expressed as a percentage of construction cost over a range of new-build projects was just 1. As a result, professional practices found it increasingly difficult to offer the same range of services and manning levels on such a reduced fee income; they had to radically alter the way they operated, or go out of business.

However, help was at hand for the hard-pressed practitioner; the difficulties of trying to manage a practice on reduced fee scale income during the latter part of the s were mitigated by a property boom, which was triggered in part by a series of governmentengineered events that combined to unleash a feeding frenzy of property development.

The most notable of these events were: The deregulation of money markets in the early s, which allowed UK banks for the first time to transfer money freely out of the country, and foreign finance houses and banks to lend freely on the UK market and invest in UK real estate. The announcement by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Nigel Lawson, of the abolition of double tax mortgage relief for domestic dwellings in , which triggered an unprecedented demand for residential accommodation; the result was a massive increase in lending to finance this sector, as well as spiralling prices and land values.

Last but by no means least, the relaxation of planning controls, which left the way open for the development of out-of-town shopping centres and business parks.

However, most property development requires credit, and the boom in development during the late s could not have taken place without financial backing. By the time the hard landing came in , many high street banks with a reputation for prudence found themselves dangerously exposed to high-risk real estate projects. The phenomenon was not just confined to the UK.

In France, for example, one bank alone, Credit Lyonnais, was left with 10 billion euros of unsecured loss after property deals on which the bank had lent money collapsed owing to oversupply and a lack in demand; only a piece of creative accountancy and state intervention saved the French bank from insolvency.

The property market crash in the early s occurred mainly because investors suffered a lack of confidence in the ability of real estate to provide a good return on investment in the short to medium term in the light of high interest rates, even higher mortgage rates, and an inflation rate that doubled within two years. In part it was also brought about by greed in the knowledge that property values had historically seldom delivered negative values.

The emergence of a new type of construction client Another vital ingredient in the brew of change was the emergence of a new type of construction client. Building and civil engineering works have traditionally been commissioned by either public or private sector clients.

The public sector has been a large and important client for the UK construction industry and its professions. However, during the s the divide between public and private sectors was to blur.

Quantity surveyor

The Conservative government of embarked upon an energetic and extensive campaign for the privatisation of the public sector that culminated in the introduction of the Private Finance Initiative in Within a comparatively short period there was a shift from a system dominated by the public sector to one where the private sector was growing in importance.

Nevertheless, the privatisation of the traditional public sector resulted in the emergence of major private sector clients such as the British Airports Authority, privatised in , with an appetite for change and innovation. This new breed of client was, as the RICS had predicted in its report on the future of quantity surveying, becoming more knowledgeable about the construction process, and such clients were not prepared 18 The story so far to sit on their hands while the UK construction industry continued to underperform.

Clients such as Sir John Egan, who in July was appointed Chairman of the Strategic Forum of Construction, became major players in the drive for value for money. The poor performance of the construction industry in the private sector has already been examined; however, if anything, performance in the public sector paints an even more depressing picture.

This performance was scrutinised by the National Audit Office NAO in in its report Modernising Construction Auditor General, , which found that the vast majority of projects were over budget and delivered late.

So dire has been the experience of some public sector clients — for example, the Ministry of Defence — that new client-driven initiatives for procurement have been introduced. If supply chain communications were polarised and fragmented in the private sector, then those in the public sector were even more so.

A series of high-profile cases in the s, in which influential public officials were found to have been guilty of awarding construction contracts to a favoured few in return for bribes, instilled paranoia in the public sector, which led to it distancing itself from contractors, subcontractors and suppliers — in effect from the whole supply chain.

At the extreme end of the spectrum this manifested itself in public sector professionals refusing to accept even a diary, calendar or a modest drink from a contractor in case it was interpreted as an inducement to show bias.

In the cause of appearing to be fair, impartial and prudent with public funds, most public contracts were awarded as a result of competition between a long list of contractors on the basis of the lowest price. The National Audit Office report suggests that the emphasis on selecting the lowest price is a significant contributory factor to the tendency towards adversarial relationships.

In an attempt to eradicate inefficiencies the public sector commissioned a number of studies such as the Levene Efficiency Scrutiny in , which recommended that departments in the public sector should: Increase the training that their staff receive in procurement and risk management. Establish a single point for the construction industry to resolve problems common to a number of departments. The lack of such a The story so far 19 management tool was identified as one of the primary contributors to problems with the British Library project.

Legislation was passed in , and from 1 April it became the statutory duty of the public sector to obtain best value. Best value will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 6.

Measuring the service gaps in the roles of quantity surveyors in the emerging market

In the Office of Government Commerce announced that the preferred methods of procurement for the UK public sector would be: The information technology revolution As measurers and information managers, quantity surveyors have been greatly affected by the information technology revolution.

Substantial parts of the chapters which follow are devoted to the influence that IT has had and will continue to have, both directly and indirectly, on the quantity surveying profession. However, this opening chapter would not be complete without a brief mention of the contribution of IT to the heady brew of change.

To date, mainly individual IT packages have been used or adapted for use by the quantity surveyor — for example, spreadsheets.

However, the next few years will see the development of IT packages designed specifically for tasks such as measurement and quantification, which will fundamentally change working practices. The speed of development has been breathtaking. This then state-ofthe-art system required the quantity surveyor to code each measured item, and on completion the codes were sent to Hastings on the south coast of England, where a team of operators would input the codes, with varying degrees of accuracy, into a mainframe computer.

After the return of the draft bill of quantities to the measurer for checking, the final document was then printed, which in most cases was four weeks after the last dimensions were taken off!

In recent years architects have made increasing use of computer-aided design CAD in the form of 2D drafting and 3D modelling for the production of project information. A report by the Construction Industry Computing Association entitled Architectural IT Usage and Training Requirements indicated that in architectural practices with more than six 20 The story so far staff, between 95 and per cent of all those questioned used 2D drafting to produce information.

This shift from hand-drawn drafting to IT-based systems has allowed packages to be developed that link the production of drawings and other information to their measurement and quantification, thereby revolutionising the once labour-intensive bill of quantities preparation procedure.

Added to this, the spread of the digital economy means that drawings and other project information can be produced, modified and transferred globally. Those who mourn the demise of traditional methods of bill of quantities production should at least take heart that no longer will the senior partner be able to include those immortal lines in a speech at the annual Christmas office party: As mentioned previously, there had been serious concern both in the industry and in government about the public image of UK Construction plc.

The recession had opened the wounds in the construction industry and shown its vulnerability to market pressures. Between and over 3, construction enterprises became insolvent, taking with them skills that would be badly needed in the future. The professions also suffered a similar haemorrhage of skills as the value of construction output fell by double-digit figures year on year.

The recession merely highlighted what had been apparent for years: The heady brew of change was now complete, but concerns over whether or not the patient realised the seriousness of the situation still gave grounds for concern.

The message was clear: Response to change In traditional manner, the UK construction industry turned to a report to try to solve its problems.

Download ‪Willis's Elements of Quantity Surveying PDF Online

In Sir Michael Latham, an academic and politician, was tasked to prepare yet another review, this time of the procurement and contractual arrangements in the United Kingdom construction industry. The construction industry held its breath — was this just another Banwell or Simon to be consigned, after a respectful period, to gather dust on the shelf? Thankfully not. The UK construction industry was at the time of publication in such a fragile state that the report could not be ignored.

The story so far 21 This is not to say that it was greeted with open arms by everyone — indeed, the preliminary report, Trust and Money, produced in December , provoked profound disagreement in the industry and allied professions. The Latham Report highlighted the following areas as requiring particular attention to assist UK construction industries to become and be seen as internationally competitive: The establishment of well-managed and efficient supply chains and partnering agreements.

The Rise Of BIM in Malaysia And Its Impact Towards Quantity Surveying Practices

Standardisation of design and components, and the integration of design, fabrication and assembly to achieve better buildability and functionality. The development of transparent systems to measure performance and productivity both within an organisation and with competitors.

Team work and a belief that every member of the construction team from client to subcontractors should work together to produce a product of which everyone can be justifiably proud. The Latham Report placed much of the responsibility for change on clients in both the public and private sectors.

The CRINE review was instigated in , with the direct purpose of identifying methods by which to reduce the high costs in the North Sea oil and gas industry.

It involved a group of operators and contractors working together to investigate the cause for such high costs in the industry, and also to produce recommendations to aid the remedy of such.

The leading aim of the initiative was to reduce development and production costs by 30 per cent, this being achieved through recommendations such as the use of standard equipment, simplifying and clarifying contract language, removing adversarial clauses, rationalisation of regulations, and the improvement of credibility and quality qualifications. It was recommended that the operators and contractors work more closely, pooling information and knowledge, to help drive down the increasing costs of hydrocarbon products and 22 The story so far thus indirectly promote partnering and alliancing procurement strategies see Chapter 6.

Could these dramatic statistics be replicated in the construction industry? Nevertheless, certain influential sections of the industry, including Sir John Egan and BAA, accepted the challenge and went further, declaring that 50 per cent or even 60 per cent savings were achievable. It was the start of the client-led crusade for value for money.

In June the Task Force published the report Rethinking Construction DoE, , which was seen as the blueprint for the modernisation of the systems used in the UK construction industry to procure work. Added to the now familiar concerns about failure to keep within agreed budgets and completion schedules, clients revealed that: They felt they were not receiving good value for money insofar as construction projects did not meet their functional needs and had high whole-life costs.

They felt that design and construction should be integrated in order to deliver added value. The story so far 23 As for quantity surveyors, the s ended with perhaps the unkindness cut of all.

It seemed to some that the absence of a quantity surveying faculty would result in the marginalisation of the profession; however, the plan was implemented in , with the Construction Faculty being identified as the new home for the quantity surveyor within the RICS.

This move however was not taken lying down by the profession; disillusioned quantity surveyors threatened the RICS with legal action to reverse the decision and in the Builder Group began to publish a new weekly magazine for quantity surveyors, QS News.

By it appeared that the RICS had had a change of mind, with references to quantity surveyors reappearing on the RICS website and rumours of a restructuring of the faculties. Ultimately the existing RICS Faculties were organised into seventeen Professional Groups, one of which is the Built Environment Group where quantity surveying and construction now has its home.

So would peace break out between the RICS and its quantity surveying members? The answer is, unfortunately, no. In a number of quantity surveying members protested against disenfranchisement and a lowering of entry standards, the latter comment referring to the introduction of a new form of membership AssocRICS to replace the existing TechRICS, an initiative that never really caught the imagination of members.

It is feared by the rebellious members that the entry requirements for AssocTech will lower entry standards. In addition, the RICS took the decision to leave the Construction Industry Council, thereby eliminating a uniform voice for construction. Once again, in shades of , quantity surveyors threatened to leave the RICS with claims of being treated as the Cinderellas of the organisation. Beyond the rhetoric How are the construction industry and the quantity surveyor rising to the challenges outlined above?

When the much-respected quantity surveyors Arthur J. Willis penned the Foreword to the eighth edition of their famous book Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor 24 The story so far in , the world was a far less complicated place.

The world of the Willises was typically organised around the production of bills of quantities and final accounts, with professional offices being divided into pre- and post-contract services.

This model was uniformly distributed across small and large practices, the main difference being that the larger practices would tend to get the larger contracts and the smaller practices the smaller contracts. This state of affairs had its advantages, as most qualified quantity surveyors could walk into practically any office and start work immediately; the main distinguishing feature between practices A and B was usually only slight differences in the format of taking-off paper.

However, owing to the changes that have taken place not only within the profession and the construction industry but on the larger world stage some of which have been outlined in this chapter , the world of the Willises has, like the British car industry, all but disappeared for ever. In the early part of the twenty-first century, the range of activities and sectors where the quantity surveyor is active is becoming more and more diverse. The small practice concentrating on traditional pre- and post-contract services is still alive and healthy.

However, at the other end of the spectrum the larger practices are now relabelled as international consulting organisations and would be unrecognisable to the Willises. As discussed in the following chapters, modern quantity surveying involves working in increasingly specialised and sectorial markets where skills are being developed in areas including strategic advice in the PFI, partnering, value and supply chain management. Certainly there seems to be a move by the larger contractors away from the traditional low-profit, high-risk, confrontational procurement paths towards deals based on partnering and PFI and the team approach advocated by Latham.

Table 1. The terms of reference for the Construction Industry Task Force concentrated on the need to improve construction efficiency and to establish best The story so far 25 practice. The industry was urged to take a lead from other industries, such as car manufacturing, steel making, food retailing and offshore engineering, as examples of market sectors that had embraced the challenges of rising worldclass standards and invested in and implemented lean production techniques.

Rethinking Construction identified five driving forces that needed to be in place to secure improvement in construction and four processes that had to be significantly enhanced, and set seven quantified improvement targets, including annual reductions in construction costs and delivery times of 10 per cent and reductions in building defects of 20 per cent.

The five key drivers that need to be in place to achieve better construction are: Committed leadership. Focus on the customer. Integration of process and team around the project. A quality-driven agenda. Commitment to people. The four key projected processes needed to achieve change are: Partnering the supply chain — development of long-term relationships based upon continuous improvement with a supply chain.

Components and parts — a sustained programme of improvement for the production and the delivery of components. Focus on the end-product — integration and focusing of the construction process on meeting the needs of the end-user. Construction process — the elimination of waste. The seven annual targets capable of being achieved in improving the performance of construction projects are: To reduce capital costs by 10 per cent.

To reduce construction time by 10 per cent. To reduce defects by 20 per cent. To reduce accidents by 20 per cent. To increase the predictability of projected cost and time estimates by 10 per cent. To increase productivity by 10 per cent. To increase turnover and profits by 10 per cent. The report also drew attention to the lack of firm quantitative information with which to evaluate the success or otherwise of construction projects.

To demonstrate whether completed projects have achieved the planned improvements in performance. To set reliable targets and estimates for future projects based upon past performances.

It has been argued that organisations like the Building Cost Information Service have been providing a benchmarking service for many years through its tender-based index. In addition, what is now required is a transparent mechanism to enable clients to determine for themselves which professional practice, contractor, subcontractor and so on delivers best value.

Although the above figures appear to reinforce the march of design and build there is anecdotal evidence which suggests that as the recession took hold in clients were reverting to single-stage competitive tendering based on bills of quantities.

One of the main reasons cited for this was the poor quality control associated with design and build. Another interesting point about Table 1. By many of the above ingredients of the heady brew had been factored into UK construction practice.

The main reason for this seems to be that everyone concerned in the construction process is familiar with the JCT, in all its forms, and more or less knows what the outcome will be in the event of a contractual dispute between the parties to the contract. However, the JCT was often blamed for much of the confrontation that has historically been so much a part of everyday life in the construction industry and Latham in his report recommended the use of the NEC.

One of the main differences between NEC and more traditional forms of contract is that the NEC has deliberately been drafted in non-legal language in the present tense, which may be fine for the parties to the contract but To date it appears as though the NEC is a step in the right direction for construction. There are few disputes involving the NEC that have reached the courts and there is no substantive NEC case law, but time will tell whether that continues to be the situation when it becomes more widely adopted.

New challenges As the second edition of New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice went to print in , sustainability and green issues were just coming to prominence in the world as a whole and the construction industry in particular.

In June the RICS published a guide entitled Surveying Sustainability which attempted to clarify for the professional the many issues surrounding the topic. As well as this guide a number of other government publications and targets have been and continue to be issued, which, taken together, make addressing sustainability a must for quantity surveyors.

Sustainability is so important for the construction industry because construction has been identified as one of the major contributors to carbon emissions and therefore to the great global warming debate, whether or not one actually subscribes to the various theories relating to climate change Figure 1. The argument went that owing to a lack of recognised industry standard a new approach was required: A more detailed discussion of the NRM is given in Chapter 2.

Conclusion There can be no doubt that the pressure for change within the UK construction industry and its professions, including quantity surveying, is unstoppable, and that the volume of initiatives in both the public and private sectors to try to engineer change grows daily. Traditional manufacturing industries declined while services industries prospered, but throughout this period the construction industry has remained relatively static, with a turnover compared to GDP of 10 per cent.

The construction industry is still therefore a substantial and influential sector and a major force in the UK economy. Perhaps more than any other construction profession, quantity surveying has repeatedly demonstrated the ability to reinvent itself and adapt to change.

Is there evidence that quantity surveyors are innovating and developing other fields of expertise? In a report was published by the RICS Foundation which came to the conclusion that there was evidence of innovation, especially among the larger practices. The report was based on a survey of twenty-seven consultants from among the largest in the UK, ranked by the number of chartered quantity surveyors employed. For the private limited companies this had resulted in organisations of a very different shape, with a flatter structure permitting more devolved responsibility and the potential for better communication throughout the organisation.

The results indicate that in the case of the largest firms fewer than 50 per cent of fee income came from quantity surveying services. The services being offered by the firms include project management, legal services, taxation advice, value management and PFI consultancy. The story so far 31 Table 1. It is claimed that one of the key objectives of the PFI is to bring private sector management expertise and the disciplines associated with private ownership and finance into the provision of public services.

However, if the PFI is to deliver value for money to the public sector, the higher costs of private sector finance and the level of returns demanded by the private sector investors must be outweighed by lower whole-life costs and increased risk transfer.

As will be discussed later in the chapter PPPs, and in particular the PFI, are now a global procurement model in which the UK is a world leader in terms of experience and know-how. The Ryrie Rules were partially phased out in and finally abandoned in with the launch of the PFI.

The Autumn Statements of and by Chancellor Kenneth Clarke were used to reshape the design and nature of the initiative. The intention was to bring the private sector into the provision of services and infrastructure, which had formerly been regarded as primarily a public 0. For many political spectators PFI was a natural progression for the Thatcher government that had so vigorously pursued a policy of privatisation during the s.

However, as far as government is concerned there is a clear distinction between the sale of existing public assets, which they see as privatisation, and the PFI, which they do not.

It was against this backdrop therefore that in the PFI was launched and almost immediately hit the rocks. In addition, there was still a large divide and inherent suspicion between the public and private sectors and very little guidance from government as to how this divide could be crossed.

The second major problem in trying to get the PFI off the ground related to the way in which a whole range of projects in the early days of the initiative were earmarked by overzealous civil servants as potential PFI projects, when they were quite obviously not.

This practice earned PFI the reputation of incurring huge procurement costs for consortia and contractors before it became apparent that the business case for the project would not hold water.

Figure 6. The Labour government was elected to power on a pledge to put partnership at the heart of modernising public services. Within a week of winning the election in May a Labour government appointed Malcolm Bates to conduct a wide-ranging review of the PFI.These are measured at five key stages throughout the lifetime of a project. In June the RICS published a guide entitled Surveying Sustainability which attempted to clarify for the professional the many issues surrounding the topic.

This can be combined with consultation with communities concerning their vulnerability and ability to cope with a hazard, particularly when climate change may threaten precarious land rights.

To demonstrate whether completed projects have achieved the planned improvements in performance. In addition to the built asset the surveyor employed in this role can monitor facilities management operation.

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