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alcocweibarcurl.cf: The Five Clocks: A Linguistic Excursion Into the Five Styles of English Usage (): Martin Joos: Books. The Five Clocks: A linguistic excursion into the five styles of English usage (A Harbinger book) [Martin Joos, Albert H. Marckwardt] on alcocweibarcurl.cf *FREE*. All about The Five Clocks (International Journal of American Linguistics,) by Martin Joos. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers.
Dialectology is the study of dialects and their geographic or social distribution.
Thus it is within communities of practice that linguistic influence may spread within and among speech communities. Accent , in technical usage, refers only to differences in pronunciation , especially those associated with geographic or social differences. Dialect, which refers to differences in syntax, morphology , and vocabulary, as well as pronunciation, is the broader term.
Standard varieties Most languages have a standard variety; that is, some variety that is selected and promoted by either quasi-legal authorities or other social institutions, such as schools or media. Standard varieties are more prestigious than other, nonstandard varieties and are generally thought of as "correct" by speakers of the language.
Since this selection constitutes an arbitrary standard , however, standard varieties are only "correct" in the sense that they are highly valued within the society that uses the language.
The Five Clocks
As Ralph Harold Fasold puts it, "The standard language may not even be the best possible constellation of linguistic features available. It is general social acceptance that gives us a workable arbitrary standard, not any inherent superiority of the characteristics it specifies. Actually the passage was an excerpt from the memoir of a Pulitzer-prize winning author.
Mencken "old-maid schoolteachers who would rather parse than eat". Language varies for many reasons.
Joos particularly points out several scales: age baby talk, teenage slang, for example , breadth from provincial to standard to genteel , responsibility bad to good. We have children living in Ft.
If we want to know when to call them on the telephone or how to talk with them when they answer, we need to keep four clocks—five if we happen to be in Dever or London.
Just as we adjust our clocks to different time zones, so we adjust our language to different situations. The fourth clock, formal, is required when the group becomes too large to permit participation, and the speaker is uncertain how much the audience already knows or how they might react.
Hence, the language must become more cohesive, more detached, more carefully informative. Good intimate style fuses two personalities.
Good casual style integrates disparate personalities into a social group. Good consultative style produces cooperation. Good formal style informs the individual separately, so that his future planning may be the more discriminate. Good frozen style, finally, lures him into educating himself, so that he may the more confidently see what role he chooses.
Is one style better than another? Do educated folk avoid colloquialisms? Are sentence fragments always a sign of incompetence?
Skillful users of language will adjust their style to each situation. Casual register This register is conversational in tone. It is the language used among and between friends. Words are general, rather than technical.
This register may include more slang and colloquialisms.
Rita Mae Brown might say that at this register, speakers are more likey to use vocabulary words with an Anglo Saxon or Germanic root. Intimate register The language used by lovers.
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It is also the language used in sexual harassment. This is the most intimate form of language.
It is best avoided in public and professional situations. Why it can be harder for English speakers to understand differences in register Unlike French, Spanish, German and other languages, English does not have different pronouns for addressing others in different registers. So, we ended up with one way to speak to everyone. That leaves Native English speakers who have never learned an additional language at a disadvantage when it comes to learning and understanding register.
There can be an assumption that all situations and all people are created equal. Needless to say, that assumption is false.Language varies for many reasons.
This does not mean, however, that Canadians or anyone else, for that matter are exempt from learning other registers and knowing when and why to change registers. Intimate register The language used by lovers.
The five clocks
Skillful users of language will adjust their style to each situation. By keeping track of what they already said in a conversation, pointing out the contradictions exposes their actual motive, they are Anti-White and they want a future without White Children.
Thanks for the suggested responses. Holocaust double standard. My favorite point made was that about the contradictions ALL Anti-Whites make all start become consistent when you see that they are simply arguing in any way they can support the Genocide of Whites.
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